Autonomy and the Self:
Gamification should be designed to give users the choice on how to express themselves and make decisions. Users should feel autonomy when engaging with gamification. Avatars can be used to give users the chance to express themselves. The more avatars can be personalised, the better for motivating engagement, because the more they lend themselves to self-expression. Badges also can help users express themselves, and importantly give users autonomy in deciding what they want to accomplish. Gamification should give users the autonomy to pursue different badges, which will help users to express themselves. For example, getting the Mayor badge on Foursquare for their favourite coffee shop.